Plate tectonics is the widely accepted theory that the Earth’s crust is divided into several sections that float around on the mantle — the mostly solid layer between the core and the crust. But how they move around has been a subject of much debate among scientists since the theory was first accepted in the 1950s.
The sections, known as plates, move at a rate of about 2 to 5 centimeters per year, which is a similar speed to how fast your fingernails grow. When they grind past each other, it’s called a transform plate boundary, which can cause earthquakes. When they move away from each other, it’s known as a divergent boundary, where lava spews out, and volcanoes can form. Sometimes, when they meet each other head on, one plate starts moving upwards to form mountains, while the other is pushed downwards where it melts. This is a convergent boundary.
Scientists have wondered for many decades whether the plates are being passively moved around by the mantle, or are the active drivers of movement themselves, dragging the mantle along with them.
A new study, published in the journal Science Advances, has shown the additional force of heat drawn from Earth’s core plays a part in plate dynamics. The team observed the East Pacific Rise, which is a divergent tectonic plate boundary which lies along the Pacific Ocean floor, and also made models of the mantle flow beneath the surface.
During their observations, they concluded that the movement of the East Pacific Rise could not be completely explained by subduction — when one plate moves under the other — and other forces had to be at play. In the paper, they state that buoyancy is created by heat rising up from deep within the Earth’s core.
The estimate is 50% of plate tectonic movement is driven by this heat, and about 20 terawatts of heat flows between the core and the mantle. That’s just slightly more than the average total power consumption of humans on Earth every year.
“We see strong support for significant deep mantle contributions of heat-to-plate dynamics in the Pacific hemisphere,” said Professor David B. Rowley, an expert of geophysical sciences at the University of Chicago and lead author of the paper, in a statement. “Heat from the base of the mantle contributes significantly to the strength of the flow of heat in the mantle and to the resultant plate tectonics.”
When the case on the mantle is heated, this reduces the density of the material, making it buoyant, which causes it to rise through the mantle. Plates also cool at the surface, creating something called negative buoyancy, which is another way of describing an object that sinks. These two forces move the plates around.
In other words, hot parts rise and cool parts sink, creating a sort of churning movement in the mantle that the plates ride on.
“Based on our models of mantle convection, the mantle may be removing as much as half of Earth’s total convective heat budget from the core,” Rowley said. “The implication of our work is that textbooks will need to be rewritten.”
At long last, Gigi Hadid’s second collection with Tommy Hilfiger is here for your viewing pleasure. Unfortunately, it’s not here for your buying pleasure—not yet, that happens February 8—but you can at very least see it in all its glory, and mentally bookmark your picks to buy as soon as they drop.
We have just one word: cute. Really, really cute. From a canary yellow polo shirt covered in patches to the perfect denim baseball cap (complete with pins) to embellished white sneakers, we guarantee you’ll find a few gems in the milieu of Tommy x Gigi’s spring 2017 collection. And here’s where to nab your picks when they release.
Albuquerque Business First has hired May Ortega as its new technology and health care reporter. Ortega joins the New Mexico business magazine after spending a year with The Monitor as a crime reporter. She is excited to jump into business writing as she covers technology, healthcare and professional services. Follow along on Twitter.
h/t Talking Biz News
Samsung will reportedly blame 'irregular sized' batteries and manufacturing problems for its exploding Note 7
The mystery of why Samsung’s Note 7 phones kept exploding might finally be solved.
The company is planning to reveal the results of its investigation into the faulty devices this weekend, and according to a Wall Street Journal report, it’s going to blame two separate battery issues.
First up is that some Note 7 batteries were “irregularly sized”, leading them to overheat and explode. That led Samsung to recall its first batch of devices.
The problems didn’t stop there. Samsung stepped up phone production to make up for the Note 7 shortfall but, according to the report, that resulted in more problems. This time, the batteries had an unspecified manufacturing issues that again caused the phones to explode, leading Samsung to issue its full recall in October.
It’s reportedly taken three quality-control and supply chain analysis firms to reach this conclusion, with Samsung set to blame the manufacturing partners responsible for its batteries.
A Samsung affiliate, Samsung SDI, was reportedly responsible for the first set of faulty batteries. The second batch was supplied by Hong Kong’s Amperex Technology Ltd.
Samsung apparently plans to step up its testing and inspections to stop the problem from happening again.
The company is separately battling its own domestic scandal, with group chief Jay Y. Lee embroiled in allegations of political corruption. He was questioned this week over alleged bribery and has denied the accusations.
Celebrities are always getting called out for Photoshopping their pics. They may think they’re tweaking an angle or blurring a line oh-so-surreptitiously, but eagle eyed fans always know what’s up, and there’s one smoking gun that has particular weight in this arena—the wavy line.
The thing with Photoshop is that if you’re trying to, say, plump up your lips—which could very well be exactly what Selena Gomez was up to in this particular suspicious snap—or amp up your curves, if you’re an amateur ‘shopper, you might accidentally move the wall behind you to the side a bit too. In other words, as you bring out your lips, you may also bring out your doorframe. (Hi, Khloé Kardashian!) Yeah, not good.
Check it out:
Another damning fact: Though the above photo was shared by Gomez’s makeup artist, hair stylist, wardrobe stylist, and manicurist on Instagram—Hung Vanngo, Marissa Marino, Christian Classen, and Tom Bachik, respectively—the pic only remains on three of their Instas. Vanngo deleted his copy—and he was the first to post. Hmm.
Our best guess is that Gomez—or, more likely, one of her lackeys—was trying to fatten up her lips, and got a little carried away. After all, those lips look mighty pillowy. Yeah, we see you Gomez. With one eye, on account of the side-eye.
Megyn Kelly, Anderson Cooper and Rachel Maddow are some of the top names in political news coverage today. Although it would be ideal to engage with these journalists, chances are you won’t be able get their attention. Instead of targeting only a handful of the most popular names, there are thousands of other journalists you can create relationships with that are reporting on similar topics. Using the Cision Communication Cloud™’s Influencer Search, you can identify influencers discussing key topics that are important to your brand. To demonstrate this, we used the new cloud to discover the top inauguration media influencers you might not know about.
Note: Cision is politically unaffiliated and does not endorse any political parties, platforms, campaigns or candidates.
Top 25 News Influencers:
Hinz is a Columnist, Blogger and Political Writer at Crain’s Chicago Business. He covers Local Government and Politics, from City Hall and the Illinois General Assembly to the Chicago Board of Education.
Brantley is a Senior Editor. Covers Little Rock, AS with an emphasis on politics. Also writes a weekly column.
Rothstein is the Editor of The Daily Caller’s The Mirror Blog covering Politics and the Media Industry.
4. Bridget Foley – Women’s Wear Daily
Foley is the Executive Editor.
Hermann is a Crime Reporter for The Washington (D.C.) Post.
Eichenwald is a Senior Writer for Newsweek.
Balz is a Chief Correspondent covering Politics for the National section at The Washington (D.C.) Post. He is also a Panelist for the PBS show Washington Week with Gwen Ifill and National Journal.
Roberts is a Features Writer for the Style section covering the wealthy and influential people for The Washington Post.
Rowland is the Public Affairs Editor at The Columbus (OH) Dispatch, overseeing State Politics and Government coverage and Blogger for the Daily Briefing.
Decker is a Politics Columnist for the Los Angeles Times, covering California Politics.
Kelly is the Assistant Managing Editor overseeing Arts & Entertainment, Travel, and Movies as well as the Weekend, Leisure and Food sections, including Calendar and Local Entertainment Listings.
12. Debbie Lord – Cox Media Group/Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Lord is a National Digital Content Reporter for the Cox Media Group and contributes to the Palm Beach Post and Atlanta Journal-Constitution websites.
Harper is a Political Reporter and a Political Columnist for Washington Times. She is also a Blogger at Inside Politics and the Water Cooler blog.
14. Deborah Simmons – The Washington Times
Simmons is a Senior Correspondent for the Washington (D.C.) Times. She covers a breadth of topics, but focuses on politics, education, sports, and culture.
Shesgreen is a Correspondent for Gannett Washington, covering Federal Government, Politics and the Supreme Court, and serving as Washington Correspondent for Gannett’s Ohio and Missouri Newspapers, including the Cincinnati Enquirer and the Springfield (MO) News-Leader.
Koff is the Washington Bureau Chief for Cleveland.com and The Plain Dealer in Cleveland, overseeing coverage of the White House, Congress and National Politics and Government.
17. Stephen Dinan – The Washington Times
Dinan is the Deputy Assistant Managing Editor for Politics and the Congressional Bureau Chief. He covers politics, elections, policy, federal government.
Bauder is an Entertainment Reporter covering the Television Industry as well as Music for the Associated Press in New York.
Naylor is a Washington Desk Correspondent. He also contributes to All Tech Considered. He covers political and federal agency topics.
Jackson is an Investigative Reporter for the Chicago Tribune.
Salant is a Washington Correspondent for NJ.com and NJ Advance Media overseeing Politics. Jonathan covers Washington, D.C. for NJ.com and The Star Ledger.
Hampson is a National Reporter for USA Today in New York, NY.
Shanahan is a Lifestyle Reporter for The Boston Globe and additionally contributes to the Names & Faces column, which contains local news on well-known Personalities and Celebrities.
Tinsley is a Senior Reporter for the Fort Worth (TX) Star-Telegram and a Blogger for PoliTex, covering Politics and Government at the Local, State and Federal level, as well as localizing National and International News, also covering Human Trafficking.
Noveck is a National Features Reporter covering Culture, as well as Fashion and Film Reviews for the Associated Press in New York.
The cofounder and chief technology officer of food delivery service Deliveroo has built a new startup called Peanut that is expected to launch next month, TechCrunch reports.
Greg Orlowski, who cofounded Deliveroo in 2012 with former Morgan Stanley investment banking analyst Will Shu, quietly left Deliveroo last February.
The reason? He “wanted to spend more time with his wife in Chicago after the birth of their daughter,” Shu told The Evening Standard.
Now it would appear that Orlowski, who did not immediately respond to Business Insider’s request for comment, is ready to get back to work and take on a new challenge.
He’s cofounded a company called Peanut — a new friend-dating app for mums and mums-to-be — with Michelle Kennedy, the former deputy CEO of dating app Badoo.
The company was incorporated as “Peanut App Limited” on June 23 2016, according to documents filed with Companies House.
Peanut’s early investors reportedly include Facebook exec Julien Codorniou and venture capitalists NEA, Felix Capital, and Partech.
The app is similar in design and appearance to other dating apps that are already out there, according to TechCrunch, which says that it is focused on chat and discovery.
Users log in with their Facebook accounts before answering some questions relating to their due date and any other children they may have. The app uses these answers, in conjunction with location-based information, to recommend potential mummy-matches in their area.
Organic Life announced that they will be stopping their print publication and going digital for the remainder of the year. Previously called Organic Gardening and re-branded as Organic Life, the magazine was established in 1942 and written for all types of gardeners. Follow Organic Life on Twitter and Facebook.
Yahoo Japan is refusing to stop the sale of ivory on its site, despite concerns that it is facilitating a business blamed for the illegal slaughter of elephants.
Even Marissa Mayer, CEO of Yahoo, has tried to stop the trade — but the business argues that so long as no laws are broken, people should be able to trade whatever it wants on the site.
Yahoo Japan (which Yahoo owns a minority stake in) operates Japan’s largest online auction site.
And it is happy to let ivory be sold on it, as long as that ivory is — supposedly — imported into Japan before 1989, when a ban on international shipments was introduced.
Meanwhile, there has been a sharp rise in poaching on the African Savannah — and some wildlife groups fear that sales on sites like Yahoo Japan are contributing to this.
“We want to provide an internet auction site where people can trade freely, and at this moment we have no intention of banning legal trading without any reason,” a spokesman for Yahoo Japan said. “We don’t believe the ivory sales contribute to a fall in elephant numbers.”
The population of African elephants — the main source of African elephants — has dropped 30% between 2007 and 2014, to less than 380,000. (They’re on the World Wildlife Fund’s (WWF) vulnerable list.)
Meanwhile, sales of ivory on Yahoo Japan have risen exponentially. 28,000 ivory pieces were traded on the platform in 2015 — more than seven times as much as a decade early, including 438 whole tusks, according to a recent report by the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA).
Ivory is traditionally used in Japan for carved “hanko” name seals. But because much of Japan’s ivory is unregistered, wildlife groups say Japan provides an opportunity for unscrupulous traders to register poached ivory for sale to Chinese traders.
Marissa Mayer isn’t happy about it
California based-Yahoo, which bans the sale of endangered animal products, says it can’t force Yahoo Japan to change. Mayer has not publicly addressed the issue, though she has let it be known that she has raised concerns internally.
“Marissa has met up dozens of times with Yahoo Japan on this issue,” said a source with knowledge of the meetings. “Sometimes it’s engagement with board members and sometimes it’s meetings with the CEOs,” he added.
The Yahoo Japan spokesman confirmed that Mayer has met its CEO Manabu Miyasaka, but declined to give details of the talks.
Ron Bell, a counsel for Yahoo, issued a statement last year describing the relationship with Yahoo Japan as one of “passive ownership.”
Aside from having its brand above the door, Yahoo has a 35.6 percent stake in Yahoo Japan, second only to the 36.4 percent owned by the Softbank Group controlled by billionaire businessman Masayoshi Son. (In Japan shareholders that own more than a third of a company’s stock has the right to veto board decisions.)
The U.S. company declined to comment further when asked whether it would consider taking action.
Yahoo Japan declined to say how much it earned in commissions from online ivory sales. But EIA estimated it was $7 million in 2015 — making just a tiny part of the $5.52 billion revenues Yahoo Japan reported for the 2015/16 financial year.
It’s only legal to sell historic ivory in Japan — but activists fear the law is being circumvented
Technically, only registered ivory shipped before a 1989 ban on exports under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) can be traded in Japan.
At CITES meeting in September, 182 countries approved a non-binding proposal to end domestic trading that animal rights groups say has spurred a revival in poaching.
Japanese officials, however, have so far said they are reluctant to stop trading on Yahoo Japan or elsewhere because they believe only pre-ban ivory is traded.
“If you closed down a well-established market like Japan it would not stop the killing. It would drive the market underground,” said a spokesman from the Japan’s Ministry of the Environment.
Nobody, however, knows how much ivory came to Japan before 1989 or how much remains unregistered, raising suspicions about shipments to China.
“Regrettably, that makes us vulnerable to criticism,” said the official from the environment ministry, which estimates there is about 2,000 tons of ivory in Japan, of which only 300 tons is registered.
That registration and accompanying third party confirmation is subject to few checks to stop poached ivory entering the market, animal rights groups say.
“The third party requirement is the problem, even family members are allowed,” said Masayuki Sakamoto, an official at EIA. “It is kind of official laundering.”
Meanwhile, China said two weeks ago it will ban the domestic trade by the end of 2017, shutting the door to the world’s biggest market for poached ivory.
Gigi Hadid and Zayn Malik are pretty cute. They like to do things like kiss on the Met Gala red carpet, talk about their sex life publicly, and blazon their love on Snapchat. Last month, when reports of Hadid turning down a marriage proposal from Malik began circulating, we mostly brushed it off—seemed like much ado about nothing, or, in layman’s terms, just plain old gossip.
But yesterday Hadid took a walk from her Bond Street apartment in New York to Gotham Gym (her fave boxing studio), and sparked serious rumors that, in fact, she really is engaged—or even married. As she wandered the mean streets of NYC, Hadid rocked one very conspicuous piece of bling: specifically, a delicate band that could easily be a wedding ring (or a very un-Hollywood-like engagement ring).
Have a look for yourself:
And a closer look:
Was Hadid just in the mood for some dainty bling en route to kick the crap out of someone with boxing gloves? Or did she actually go and marry Malik under our noses? We’re thinking the former, but—anything is possible in this crazy world. Best of luck to the young lovebirds.